The number of distinct photons or quanta of energy is ever increasing. If we go back in the course of time we must find fewer and fewer quanta, until we find all the energy of the Universe represented in a few quanta or even in a unique quantum fluctuation or singularity. But in atomic processes the idea of time or space are just statistical notions, they do not exist when applied to individual interactions between small numbers of quanta. If the Universe begun with a single quantum, the notions of time and space would fail to have any meaning at the beginning, they would only begin to have a sensible meaning when the original quantum had been divided into sufficient numbers of quanta. This suggests that the beginning of the Universe happened a little before the beginning of the process that forms time and space. Maybe an eternity before LOL!
Another way of looking at this would be as an infinite process of spherical symmetry forming and breaking. Nothing has lower entropy than a sphere and as the spherical symmetry is broken it forms greater degrees of freedom for the ever increasing entropy or disorganization that we have in the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Within such a process thinking of the Big Bang as a focus point from are line of sight or reference frame within the Milky Way Galaxy. The expansion of space and formation of time would naturally form spherical voids with galaxies on the surface and clusters at the intersections of the spherical voids. This fits in with observation of the Universe as a foam like structure composed of soup bubbles in which the walls of the bubbles represent concentrations of galaxies and their interior represent vast areas of space. Quantum fluctuations would form Light or plasma that would expand out in all directions forming a sphere. When another quantum fluctuation was encountered the spherical symmetry would break forming the most beautiful of geometrical shapes the spiral in the form of spiral galaxies. This is explained very simply here, but can be explained in greater detail as plasma physics based on the work of Hannes Alfven antimatter and plasma cosmology.
By far the greatest thing about an infinite process of symmetry forming and breaking is that it creates not just the possibility of ever greater symmetry forming, but the inevitability of ever greater symmetry complexity and diversity. The evolution of life was not some cosmic accident, the momentum and dynamic geometry has always been written in structure of the Universe. With life only ever being an infinitesimal potential of what it could be, and that will always be so!
This process from simple to complex is relative to lowering energy interactions or temperature. The initial high temperature would form the light elements hydrogen and helium with the heavier elements of the Periodic Table being formed later within the stars, with hydrogen and helium as raw material. Eventually these stars explode and distribute the material into the galaxy. Therefore we can say we are all made of stardust!
At an even more fundamental level what we are seeing is the division and movement of charge. The light photon of quantum mechanics is the carrier that forms the movement of charge and flow of electromagnetic fields. This process is unfolding quanta by quanta or photon by photon with each new photon electron coupling or dipole moment. At that moment in time we have matter antimatter annihilation with an emergent future relative to the energy and momentum of the atoms.
Causality the precept that cause precedes effect requires the existence of an antiparticle for every elementary particle. This is far from obvious, but in Einstein’s Special relativity moving different observers could see things happen in reverse order if we never had mirror symmetry or pairs of particles and antiparticles.
The ‘microcosm’ and the ‘macrocosm’ are different aspects of the same process with the mathematics of quantum mechanics representing the physics of ‘time’ as a physical process. With classical physics representing process over a period of time as in Newton’s differential equations.
By simplifying consciousness to the form of electrical activity in the brain that is aware of its own electrical potential we can explain conscious awareness as the most advanced part of this universal process and can therefore comprehend this simple process as 'time'. With a past that has gone forever and a future that is always uncertain in the form of a probability function or quantum wave particle function. Therefore each individual is in the centre of their own reference frame as an interactive part of this process being able to look back in time in all directions at the beauty of the stars! It is this personalization of the brain being in ‘the moment of now’ in the center of its own reference frame that gives us the concept of ‘mind’ with each one of us having our own unique personal view of the beauty and uncertainty of life.
At the smallest scale of this process our potential future possibilities and opportunities are seen mathematically as Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle ∆×∆p×≥h/4π with the Planck constant ħ=h/2π being a constant of action in the dynamic geometrical process of space and time!
The Universe is a continuum formed by the spontaneous absorption and emission of light represented by the probability function or quantum wave particle function. This is explained mathematically by Schrödinger's wave equation Ψ. The wave particle duality of light and matter (electrons) is forming a blank canvas that we can interact with forming the possible into the actual! The future is an emergent property energy ∆E slows the rate that time ∆t flows creating a future relative to the energy and momentum or actions of each object or life form. Mass will increase relative to this, and time dilation will also be seen at the largest scale as an expansion of space!
This is similar to Fred Hoyle’s Steady State Theory. He suggested matter might be continuously created by a hypothetical “creation field” akin to a gravitational or electromagnetic field. It was the creation of new matter that caused the cosmos to expand. This was based on a seemingly mad idea of the routine creation of matter from nothing. Ironically many theorists have now used quantum theory to argue that our cosmos literally formed from nothing. But the video below explains an alternative radical theory with quantum potential, gravitational potential and electromagnetic potential being part of one process with the future being formed out of nothing but a simple process of energy exchange!
This is supported mathematically with both the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force sharing the inverse square law with the quantum wave particle function expanding out as an inverse sphere forming the inward force of gravity. We have one universal geometrical process in three dimensional space with gravity being a secondary force to the electromagnetic force.
Because we have one universal process the Universe will always be in perfect balance it will never expand into nothingness and undergo a great crunch. The Universe will always have critical density maintaining a flat Universe that has Euclidean geometry in three dimensional space.
We can have an infinite universe within a finite sphere as long as the Universe is expanding. This has created the question what is outside the Universe?
In this theory the answer is ‘the future’ the Universe is expanding forming the future! A dart thrown at the edge of the Universe would carry on forming a future relative to its energy and momentum.
The extra dimensions of String Theory and parallel universes of Hugh Everett Many worlds interpretation are just future possibilities and opportunities in our one three dimensional Universe of continuous energy exchange or what I like to call continuous creation. In Hugh Everett mathematics the parallel universes are all at right-angles to each other. In this theory this represents electromagnetic fields always being at right-angles to each other.
The idea of a Big Bang and a cosmological time line can be explained using Eternal Inflation with expansion lasting forever. Instead having an ever inflating or expanding Universe forming an infinite number of dimensions or parallel universes, we have an infinity of possibilities and opportunities with formation of fractal geometry in just three dimensions of space and one variable of time.
Please Subscribe on YouTube and be part of the promotion of this theory!